Hysteroscopy is a simple and short surgical procedure used for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. It can be used for both diagnosis and treatment at the same time. The procedure involves inserting a thin tube with a light into the cavity to view internal organs through a camera attached to a TV screen.
Many women suffer from uterine and vaginal conditions that cause delayed conception or other symptoms, such as heavy bleeding. In this article, we will learn more about the types of hysteroscopes and their benefits.
Types of Hysteroscopes:
1- Office hysteroscope:
• It is called so because it is found in the doctor's clinic. It has special specifications as it is characterized by a small thickness so that it passes through the uterus cavity without the need of cervix dilation or causing pain, so the woman does not need anesthesia or an operating room.
• The examination with the office hysteroscope is done after the menstrual cycle, and a vaginal shower should be used to sterilize it.
• The clinic is equipped for this type of hysteroscope and is regularly sterilized.
2- Diagnostic hysteroscope:
• This hysteroscope is used to diagnose the condition, detect fibrous or cancerous tumors, and determine the cause of bleeding and delayed conception.
• A tube with a camera is inserted through the vagina so that the doctor can see the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovaries.
3- Surgical hysteroscope:
It is used to treat the problem discovered through diagnostic hysteroscopy.
Instructions before the surgical hysteroscope:
1- Stop eating and drinking at midnight before the surgery or for 6–8 hours.
2- Stop taking aspirin a week before the surgery.
3- If the patient is taking medication for blood pressure, she can administer it on the morning of the surgery as usual, but with a small amount of water.
4- Remove hair in the bikini area one day before the surgery.
5- Arrive at the hospital two hours before the surgery.
6- The nursing staff will give her an antibiotic to protect her from infection.
7- Inform the nursing staff if you are allergic to any medication.
Steps of the surgical hysteroscope:
1- Patient sedation is provided to help the patient relax before the procedure.
2- Cervical dilation is performed.
3- The tube is inserted through the vagina and cervix until it reaches the uterus.
4- A solution or carbon dioxide gas is pumped to expand the uterus and remove adhesions.
5- The procedure duration varies from case to case, ranging from 5 minutes to an hour.
General anesthesia with a surgical hysteroscope:
• The surgical hysteroscope is performed one week after the menstrual cycle to ensure the doctor has a better view of the uterus.
• If the patient undergoes general anesthesia, she will be monitored for several hours until the effects of the anesthesia wear off, and she can leave the hospital on the same day and resume her daily life as usual.
• The patient may experience some symptoms that will quickly disappear, and there is no need to worry about them, such as:
1- Mild vaginal bleeding for a day or two.
2- Shoulder pain due to retained carbon dioxide gas used to expand the uterus during the procedure.
3- Abdominal cramps.
The doctor should be consulted if the following symptoms occur:
1- Severe abdominal pain.
2- Abnormal vaginal discharge.
3- Severe bleeding.
4- Elevated body temperature.
Uses of the surgical hysteroscope:
1- Removal of polyps.
2- Removal of fibroids less than 5 cm beneath the endometrium.
3- Correction of congenital defects or abnormalities in the uterus, such as a septate uterus that affects fertility.
4- Treatment of bleeding, before and after menopause, caused by large benign or malignant tumors that may lead to miscarriage in cases of pregnancy.
5- Getting rid of adhesions in the uterine cavity, which are adhesions in the uterine wall that cause irregular or weak menstruation and may cause infertility or miscarriage in cases of pregnancy. Adhesions occur due to severe inflammation or injury resulting from fibroid removal.
6- Removal of an intrauterine device in some cases where the device is positioned improperly or if part of the IUD remains inside the uterus after its removal after the interruption of the menstrual cycle at menopause.
7- Expand the fallopian tube opening with a balloon.
8- Removal of foreign bodies, such as retained placental tissue, after miscarriage.
Instructions after the surgical hysteroscope:
1- Do not take aspirin until one day after the procedure.
2- Adhere to the medication prescribed by the doctor.
3- Drink plenty of fluids daily.
4- Follow the doctor's instructions after the procedure.
Benefits of the hysteroscope:
1- Short recovery period.
2- Safe surgery.
3- Short hospital stay.
4- The patient does not require many painkillers.
5- Smaller surgical incisions.
Complications of the surgical hysteroscope:
Some complications may occur in some rare cases.
1- Severe bleeding.
2- Cervical injury.
3- Risks related to anesthesia.
4- Formation of scars inside the uterus.