A Caesarean section is a surgical procedure performed to deliver the fetus by making a horizontal incision above the pubic area, through which an incision is made in the abdomen and uterus to reach the fetus. The C-section is an important procedure because it is used in certain cases where vaginal delivery poses a threat to the life of the mother or the fetus. The procedure is usually performed under local anesthesia, but sometimes general anesthesia may be required, which is determined by the doctor based on the mother's condition.
When is a C-section necessary?
Vaginal delivery is the best and least harmful solution in childbirth, but sometimes it poses a risk to the mother, which leads the doctor to choose a C-section as a safe solution for the health of the mother and fetus. The most important cases that require a C-section are:
1- Placental problems, such as placental abruption, which causes bleeding and pain in the uterus, affecting the oxygen supply to the fetus, or when the placenta moves and covers the cervix.
2- A large fetus, especially one with a large head, makes vaginal delivery difficult.
3- The mother's small and narrow cervix makes it difficult for the fetus to be delivered naturally.
4- Absence of signs of labor and delivery.
5- The reversed position of the fetus makes vaginal delivery difficult.
6- Uterine rupture.
7- Umbilical cord problems such as prolapse or entanglement around the fetus.
8- The mother has a disease such as diabetes, HIV, or sexually transmitted diseases that may be transmitted to the fetus during vaginal delivery, such as herpes.
9- Previous C-section.
11- Uterine anomalies.
12- Multiple pregnancies, where a C-section is necessary if the mother is carrying twins.
13- Presence of a fibroid that obstructs natural delivery.
Some women prefer a C-section over vaginal delivery to avoid the pain of natural childbirth or to give birth on a specific day, but a C-section is not recommended for women planning to have more than one child because women who undergo a C-section are more likely to have uterine and placental problems.
Post-caesarean section symptoms:
• After the procedure, the mother feels severe pain when getting up and has difficulty moving around the incision site. The incision usually takes one to one and a half months to heal.
• Back pain due to local anesthesia lasts for several days, then disappears with the disappearance of the anesthesia's effect and a feeling of shivering in the body.
• Burning during urination and itching in the vaginal area.
• Pain during sneezing or coughing and while laughing due to the incision.
• It is necessary to move and walk after the procedure to activate blood circulation and avoid the formation of blood clots.
Risks of a C-section:
There are complications related to the mother and others related to the fetus. Complications related to the mother include adhesions, which mean the adhesion of organs to each other or the inner wall. If you have undergone more than one C-section, you are more susceptible to adhesions and the problems associated with them, such as severe pain, as they limit the movement of internal organs. They may also cause intestinal obstruction or affect the fallopian tube, which affects the mother's fertility.
A C-section also increases the risk of blood clots in the legs, causing leg pain, and if left untreated, the clot may move around the blood to the heart or lungs.
Also, one of the complications of a C-section is the removal of the uterus due to placental adherence to the uterine wall, forcing the doctor to remove the uterus after delivery.
Tearing of the C-section incision is another complication of the C-section procedure.
Fetal risks include respiratory problems. Babies born by C-section are more susceptible to transient breathing problems, such as rapid, abnormal breathing, in the first few days.
Despite the risks of a C-section, it has several advantages over vaginal delivery, including:
1- Determining the mother's delivery date and preparing her psychologically before the procedure.
2- The mother does not feel the pain of contractions during a C-section.
3- There is no severe bleeding in the days following the procedure, unlike vaginal delivery.
4- There are no bruises or stitches in the vagina.
5- Protecting the fetus from the risk of suffocation or oxygen deprivation.
Pregnancy and natural delivery after a caesarean section:
A woman can become pregnant after a C-section, but not for less than two years until the uterus is completely healed and the mother is in a condition that allows her to become pregnant again. As for natural childbirth after a C-section, it is still possible, but after five years. The decision to have a natural childbirth depends on the reason that led the doctor to perform the C-section for the first time. If the reason was permanent, such as a narrow pelvis or health problems in the mother, then the result would be a C-section. However, if the cause was incidental, such as the large size of the fetus, it is possible to give birth naturally.